8 questions to plan your personal minimum connecting time.


Determining “Minimum connecting time,” the legal minimum at which an airline will book a connection, is in reality a rather inexact science. And, as most frequent travelers will attest, it is often very unrealistic.

Last weekend, I chose United flights that were a legal connection, at 39 minutes in Chicago, O’Hare, that at other times I might have considered foolhardy, especially since it was a United Express flight landing in terminal 2, transferring to a United plane in terminal 1.

I made the connection, aided by a Air Traffic Control delay on the second flight. Even if it had been on time, I would have made it, albeit during boarding. That may have created a carry-on problem. But in this case, traveling by myself, early in the day, I felt comfortable risking it.

Here are some questions to help determine your own personal minimum connecting time, which may be more than the airlines say.

1. How critical is your connection?
If there are several more flights in the day to the final destination and it’s not during a holiday period, then there’s a decent chance the airline can get you on another later flight.

On the other hand, if you’re connecting to the last flight of the day or an international flight that only goes once a day, make sure to allow extra time.

2. Traveling alone? A single companion may help you run through the airport or flag down a cart; a family will probably slow you down. Besides, a group is as fast as its slowest walker and someone is likely to need a pit stop.

3. Do you have luggage, either checked or significant carry-on? You may be able to run and barely make a connection, but in that case, your luggage may not — and then there’s the whole delayed baggage circus. If you have a large carry-on bag, boarding late may mean a required gate check if the overhead bins are full.

4. Is getting something to eat a priority? With my recent connection, I brought breakfast along, because if the planes were on time, stopping to wait — even in a short line for a sandwich or something — wasn’t going to happen. While airlines generally sell food, it can be limited and may run out.

5. Can you get seats towards the front of the airplane on your first flight? Admittedly, I’m spoiled as a United premier, because I can generally get seats in the Economy Plus section. But, when you’re towards the back of a good-sized plane, it can take a good 10 minutes or so to disembark, especially these days when baggage fees mean that carry-on bins are full and most travelers seem to have the maximum allowed.

6. Do you know the airport? It’s usually much faster when you know what you’re doing and where you’re going.

7. Do you have access to backup? It’s helpful to have a travel agent you can call, a website where you can rebook your travel, etc., in case something goes wrong or you need fast information. (For example, clients often call me upon landing to check their connecting flights and possible backups, before they get to the gate.)

8. What’s your comfort level for a close call? This might be the most important. As stressful as a tight connection can be, airlines don’t generally offer connections their passengers can’t usually make. It’s no fun for them either when they have to deal with unhappy passengers who probably need time-consuming rebooking time, not to mention the luggage problem.

This last question doesn’t have a right or wrong answer. If you’re someone who is relaxed about the concept, figuring that it will work or you’ll work it out, then you probably will be okay, even with a potential close call. If you’re really going to worry about it, before and during the trip, then it’s probably not worth the stress and you should allow yourself extra time.

  • Graham

    Just remember Minimum Connecting Time (MCT) only applies if you have one ticket (and a ticket is NOT the same as a reservation). If you have 2 tickets then, in many cases, you have to deplane, collect baggage (if you have any), check in again, go through security and then find the gate. That needs more time than an MCT.

    Also, here’s a European gotcha. The low cost carriers like Ryanair and easyJet don’t do connections. You buy a ticket from a to b and a separate ticket from b to c. If their a-b flight is delayed such that you miss their b-c flight you have to pay at the very least a fee and in some cases a new ticket with no credit for the one you didn’t use. It doesn’t matter if the delayed inbound is their own flight or not, you pay.

  • Cathy_Disqus

    When I’m considering a tight connection in Dallas or Chicago, I check Flightaware to see what gates the flights usually use. Things can change of course, but I’m more comfortable with a short connection that is probably going to be in the same terminal than one where I’m likely to be going from end to end.

  • MeanMeosh

    I count myself in the “very very low comfort level” category on close calls, so if I have to connect, I build in connections that are probably too long, but hey, it makes me feel better, and I’ve never missed a connecting flight in all the years I’ve been flying. Plus, my philosophy on that is, what would you rather do: dork around at the airport for an hour, or risk not getting home or to that meeting until the next day because you cut it too close?

    Speaking of #6, my aunt is coming to the U.S. for the first time later this week, and neither she nor her husband are frequent fliers, except for some short domestic flights within India. So when it comes time to book her flights here, what does she do, she goes to some website which offers up a flight on Qatar with a 90-minute connection at IAH, which naturally she wants to book because it’s the cheapest. This for a pair of non-US citizens, who have never flown internationally, and will have to claim and re-check their bags AND change terminals at IAH. Luckily, she called mom before booking, and we were able to talk her out of it!

  • janice

    Good point, in O’Hare a lot of times the commuter flights use a different terminal.

  • josh

    The vast majority of problems with originating or connecting flights can easily be avoided by simply allowing yourself sufficient time to park, check baggage, get to the actual terminal and gate, etc. Forget FLIGHT TIME and focus on BOARDING TIME. Yeah, I know, you’re a really busy person and you absolutely HAVE to book those tight connections. Baloney. You must thrive on stress. Instead, allow TWICE as much time as it should reasonably take to get from your ground transportation to the gate. In the long run what is another half-hour to an hour? There are too many things at the airport that are not within your control to justify your continuing to fight them. OK, continue your stress-filled ways; sorry, just don’t dare try to elbow your way past me in the security line.